Chapter 5


Social Group- two or more people who identify with and interact with one another
  • Olive and her friend Rhiannon hang out together and have been best friends for a long time.

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Primary group- a small social group whose members share personal and lasting relationships
  • The Cross Your Heart group worships together and they share personal feelings about other individuals in their prayers.

Secondary groups- a large and impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific goal or activity
  • Olive's highschool classmates pursue the goal of graduating

Out group- a social group toward which a person feels a sense of competition or opposition
  • Homosexuals (like Brandon) feel shunned from the rest of the school because they are so different from everyone else.

Network- a web of weak social ties
  • Olive's classmates would be her network.
In-group- a social group toward which a member feels respect and loyalty
  • Marianne is part of an in- group because each member of the Cross Your Heart group respect eachother and are loyal to eachother.
Rationality- a way of thinking that emphizes deliberate, matter-of-fact calculation of the most efficient way to accomplish a particular task
  • Olive thinks rationality when coming up with the idea of Brandon "sleeping" with her to make the bullies leave him alone.
Oligarchy- rule of the many by the few
  • The principal in school is an example of oligarchy.

Expressive leadership: group leadership that focuses on the group's well-being
  • Marianne’s church group focuses on the well-being of its members and all of the students at the high school. In order to ensure the member’s well-being, each person takes a chastity pledge which will prevent the spread of STDs.
Groupthink: the tendency of group members to conform, resulting in a narrow view of some issue
  • When Marianne suggests that the church group should make Olive their next project, the members blindly accepts this decision. They do not present any protests to the plan and conform to Marianne’s suggestion.
Reference group: a social group that serves as some point of reference in making evaluations and decisions
  • When Olive goes on a date with Anson, she imagines Rhiannon’s reaction. Olive knows that Rhiannon has like Anson for a long time, so when she sees Rhiannon at the restaurant she tries to cover up the fact that she is on a date with Anson. Olive is using Rhiannon as a reference group because she values Rhiannon’s opinion and doesn’t want to hurt her feelings.
dyad: (Greek for "pair"); a social group with two members
  • Rhiannon and Olive are considered a dyad. Both characters are not very popular at school, so they form a social group that consists of two members. Rhiannon and Olive spend a lot of time together and share many of the same attitudes.

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